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Laptop expansion slot types

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In computing, the expansion card, expansion board, adapter card or accessory card is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an electrical connector, or expansion slot, on a computer motherboard, backplane or riser card to add functionality to a computer system via the expansion bus. It is a collection of wires and protocols that allows for the expansion of a computer. Even vacuum-tube based computers had modular construction, but individual functions for peripheral devices filled a cabinet, not just a printed circuit board. O cards became feasible with the development of integrated circuits.

Minicomputers, starting with the PDP-8, were made of multiple cards, all powered by and communicating through a passive backplane. The first commercial microcomputer to feature expansion slots was the Micral N, in 1973. The first company to establish a de facto standard was the Altair 8800, developed 1974-1975, which later became a multi-manufacturer standard, the S-100 bus. Proprietary bus implementations for systems such as the Apple II co-existed with multi-manufacturer standards.

At that time, the technology was called the PC bus. The 8-bit PC and XT bus was extended with the introduction of the IBM AT in 1984. 8-bit cards were still usable in the AT 16-bit slots. IBM AT bus after other types were developed.

O port addresses, and DMA channels had to be configured by switches or jumpers on the card to match the settings in driver software. 2 in 1987, was a competitor to ISA, also their design, but fell out of favor due to the ISA’s industry-wide acceptance and IBM’s licensing of MCA. EISA, the 32-bit extended version of ISA championed by Compaq, was used on some PC motherboards until 1997, when Microsoft declared it a “legacy” subsystem in the PC 97 industry white-paper.